Friday, November 04, 2011

The Role(s) of Analogy in Reasoning

John F. Sowa, a proponent of conceptual graphs, believes that analogy plays a key role in all or almost all reasoning:
6. Analogy and Case-Based Reasoning
Based on the same kind of pattern matching as perception:
● Associative retrieval by matching patterns.
● Approximate pattern matching for analogies and metaphors.
● Precise pattern matching for logic and mathematics.
Analogies can support informal, case-based reasoning:
● Long-term memory can store large numbers of previous experiences.
● Any new case can be matched to similar cases in long-term memory.
● Close matches are ranked by a similarity measure.
Formal reasoning is based on a disciplined use of analogy:
● Induction: Generalize multiple cases to create rules or axioms.
● Deduction: Match (unify) a new case with part of some rule or axiom.
● Abduction: Form a hypothesis based on aspects of similar cases.

Sowa's diagram:


The dynamic evidence page

Evidence marshaling software MarshalPlan

It's here: the law of evidence on Spindle Law. See also this post and this post.
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